";s:4:"text";s:6628:" The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Nicholson, C. P. 1997.  As would be expected for a long-distance migrant, this bird has occurred as a vagrant to such distant areas as Hawaii, Bermuda, Greenland, Tristan da Cunha the Falkland Islands, and even Antarctica. No other swallow in North America shows such a deeply forked tail. Juveniles are dark above and pale cinnamon below with rich rusty throat and forehead. It was the killing of Barn Swallows for the millinery trade (decorations for lady's hats) that apparently prompted George Grinnell's 1886 editorial in Forest and Stream, which ultimately led to the founding of the first Audubon Society. Males are more boldly colored than females. Conversely, warmer springs may lengthen the breeding season and result in more chicks, and the opportunity to use nest sites outside buildings in the north of the range might also lead to more offspring. The red-chested swallow is slightly smaller than its migratory relative, has a narrower blue breast-band, and (in the adult) has shorter tail streamers.
Vagrant: North American subspecies casual or accidental in western and northern Alaska, and Hawaii, southern Greenland, Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands. , The breeding season of the barn swallow is variable; in the southern part of the range, the breeding season usually is from February or March to early to mid September, although some late second and third broods finish in October. Brown, C. R. and M. B. Your Online Guide To Birds And Bird Watching. Although the record age is more than 11 years, most survive less than four years. It is constructed by both sexes, although more often by the female, with mud pellets collected in their beaks and lined with grasses, feathers, algae or other soft materials. Dark blue-black above with a dark rusty throat. The adult male barn swallow of the nominate subspecies H. r. rustica is 17–19 cm (6.7–7.5 in) long including 2–7 cm (0.79–2.76 in) of elongated outer tail feathers. Barn Swallows breeding in the Americas winter in the Neotropics, traveling as far as much larger birds such as the Red Knot and Osprey. The Barn Swallow's habit of nesting in barns makes this the most familiar swallow to Tennesseans. Common worldwide. Barn Swallow chicks in nest by John L. Absher, Shutterstock. Brood parasitism by cowbirds in North America or cuckoos in Eurasia is rare. Appears dark above (iridescent navy blue in good light) and lighter below; belly color varies considerably across its extremely wide distribution, ranging from white to orange. However, in Honshū, Japan, the barn swallow is a more urban bird, with the red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) replacing it as the rural species. Both adults build the cup-shaped nest of mud pellets mixed with straw, and lined with grass and feathers. Barn Swallows once nested in caves throughout North America, but now build their nests almost exclusively on human-made structures. They fledge in about 21 days and the parents will continue to feed them for another week. , Barn swallows are one of the most depicted birds on postage stamps around the world. Length 6.8". A preliminary review of the Hirundinidae", "SMRT long reads and Direct Label and Stain optical maps allow the generation of a high-quality genome assembly for the European barn swallow (, "Barn swallows before barns: population histories and intercontinental colonization". Polytypic (6â8 ssp. The other five subspecies breed across Europe and Asia, migrating to southern Africa and Asia for the winter.
The timing of a clutch also determines the food given; later broods get food that is smaller in size compared to earlier broods. Flies are a favored food, along with beetles, wasps, butterflies, moths, and bees. The juvenile is browner and has a paler rufous face and whiter underparts. There have been local declines due to the use of DDT in Israel in the 1950s, competition for nest sites with house sparrows in the US in the 19th century, and an ongoing gradual decline in numbers in parts of Europe and Asia due to agricultural intensification, reducing the availability of insect food. , It is depicted as the martlet, merlette or merlot in heraldry, where it represents younger sons who have no lands. Recent research has shown that tail length and degree of asymmetry in the outer tail-streamers appears to be a reliable predictor of an individual's quality. Spends a lot of time in flight, zipping over fields and ponds in search of insects.  In Africa the short tail streamers of the juvenile barn swallow invite confusion with juvenile red-chested swallow (Hirundo lucida), but the latter has a narrower breast band and more white in the tail. Measuring 5 1/2 to 7 inches in length with pointed wings and a deeply forked tail. Barn Swallows feed on the wing, snagging insects from just above the ground or water to heights of 100 feet or more.  When egg-laying barn swallows hunt in pairs, but otherwise will form often large flocks. They fly with fluid wingbeats in bursts of straight flight, rarely gliding, and can execute quick, tight turns and dives. Swallows(Order: Passeriformes, Family:Hirundinidae). Tail is long and deeply forked with a white band across it. Upperparts are usually steely blue, but color changes with angle of light.